Throughout his almost 4 many years in energy, from 1979 to 2017, Mr. dos Santos led his resource-plentiful nation by seemingly countless battle and an uneasy peace marked by corruption that funneled huge riches to his household and a well-liked few whereas leaving most Angolans in dismal poverty.
Greater than half 1,000,000 individuals had been killed in a civil battle that displaced greater than 3 million and left a lot of the nation in ruins or pocked with land mines, at the same time as Angola grew to become Africa’s second-largest oil producer and third-largest producer of diamonds.
A fiercely non-public, even reclusive determine, Mr. dos Santos largely eschewed any cult of character. Even his picture on the nation’s foreign money was partly hid by one other portrait. He gave few speeches or interviews, revealing little of his private life. He supplied a tight-lipped smile in official images, none of which confirmed his workplace or houses.
Mr. dos Santos was finally compelled into exile — to a $7.2 million mansion in Barcelona — after his successor, President João Lourenço, unexpectedly launched an anti-corruption crackdown that closed in on the long-untouchable dos Santos household and its associates.
The chief goal of the probe was Isabel dos Santos, the previous president’s eldest daughter and apparently Africa’s richest girl. She was charged in 2020 with cash laundering, forgery and different monetary crimes stemming from her tenure as head of Angola’s nationwide oil firm, Sonangol.
Prosecutors relied largely on a large trove of leaked monetary and enterprise data revealed by information organizations working with the Worldwide Consortium of Investigative Journalists, a Washington-based investigative nonprofit. The “Luanda Leaks” scandal tied Isabel dos Santos or her husband to greater than 400 company entities in 41 international locations and offshore tax havens.
She had opulent houses in London and Dubai and constructed a secretive enterprise empire value an estimated $3.5 billion, however she denied wrongdoing. Two of her half siblings fled overseas. A half brother, José Filomeno dos Santos was arrested in 2018 and later sentenced to 5 years in jail for embezzling as much as $500 million from Angola’s sovereign wealth fund, which he had led.
In all, the Lourenço authorities estimated that greater than $24 billion was looted throughout Mr. dos Santos’ rule, allegedly by unlawful diversion of oil income, sweetheart authorities contracts, deeply entrenched patronage and different schemes.
Mr. dos Santos “allowed his rapid and prolonged household and associates to dominate business exercise in what grew to become a stagnating financial system [and] a textbook kleptocracy,” stated Alex Vines, head of the Africa program at Chatham Home, a British suppose tank.
Regardless of his understated public picture, Mr. dos Santos held almost unfettered energy. He headed the armed forces, oversaw safety companies and led the Widespread Motion for the Liberation of Angola, or MPLA, the forces which have dominated almost each aspect of Angolan life because the Portuguese colony received independence in 1975.
At that time, Mr. dos Santos’ faction was backed by Cuba and the Soviet Union. America and apartheid-era South Africa supported the MPLA’s chief army rival, identified by the acronym UNITA, fueling a ruinous superpower proxy battle for management of Angola. The nation’s civil battle outlasted the Chilly Conflict, sputtering to an in depth solely in 2002.
Throughout his lengthy tenure, Mr. dos Santos’s regime relied on what State Division human rights stories described as arbitrary arrests, torture and extrajudicial killings, in addition to a murky judicial course of and limits on free meeting, speech and the press.
A shrewd dealmaker, Mr. dos Santos achieved his political longevity by swapping allies and ideologies because the world modified round him. Because the Soviet Union started to implode, the one-time Marxist-Leninist permitted a partial market financial system, permitting Chevron, Texaco and different US firms to faucet Angola’s huge offshore oil fields, the nation’s chief revenue supply.
In time, he deserted Marxism-Leninism fully, expelled Cuban forces and allowed the nation’s first multiparty elections. America grew to become Angola’s largest buying and selling companion, and Mr. dos Santos made 4 working visits to the White Home by 2004.
Since then, an growing share of the nation’s oil has gone to China. As a part of a loans-for-oil program, China has invested greater than $20 billion in roads, faculties, energy crops and different infrastructure in Angola, in accordance with the Portuguese information company Lusa.
However, the World Financial institution estimates that greater than half of Angola’s greater than 30 million individuals survive on lower than $1.90 a day. Life expectancy in Angola stays among the many world’s lowest, and toddler mortality ranks among the many highest.
José Eduardo dos Santos, the son of a bricklayer, was born in Luanda, the capital, on Aug. 28, 1942. His excessive grades secured him one of many few spots out there to African college students at a faculty attended by youngsters of the Portuguese elite. Amid rising anti-colonial sentiment on the continent, he enlisted within the MPLA’s military at age 20 decided to finish 4 centuries of Portuguese rule.
Like many African militants, he discovered assist in Moscow. He acquired a level in petroleum engineering in 1969 from a school in Baku, Azerbaijan, then a Soviet republic.
He was serving on the MPLA’s central committee when Portugal agreed to grant independence to Angola in 1975. The transitional authorities in Luanda collapsed when preventing broke out between the MPLA and rival guerrilla teams, together with the Nationwide Union for the Complete Independence of Angola, or UNITA .
With assist from Havana and Moscow, the MPLA managed to safe a shaky new authorities below President Agostinho Neto, however his dying from most cancers in 1979 elevated Mr. dos Santos — then a key cupboard member — to president, commander of the armed forces and head of the Individuals’s Meeting.
Angola — a rustic twice the scale of France — remained in dire straits. The foreign money was all however nugatory and the civil battle, usually fought by youngster troopers, destroyed infrastructure and despatched thousands and thousands fleeing.
The 1992 multiparty elections, which had been carried out below a cease-fire and supervised by the United Nations, marked the primary actual likelihood for peace. However when Jonas Savimbi, the US-backed UNITA chief, misplaced decisively to Mr. dos Santos, he falsely claimed fraud and reignited the battle.
Savimbi’s forces quickly captured huge swaths of territory and reduce provide strains to cities, producing hunger in some areas. As casualties and atrocities mounted, Alioune Blondin Béye, the UN particular envoy to Angola, known as it “the worst battle on this planet.” A peace deal was achieved solely after Angolan troops killed Savimbi in February 2002.
Mr. dos Santos was married to Ana Paula dos Santos, a former style mannequin and flight attendant. He was reported to have fathered 4 to eight youngsters by numerous wives and relationships, however no official record of survivors was instantly out there.
Affected by poor well being, Mr. dos Santos voluntarily stepped down on the 2017 legislative elections and handed energy to Lourenço, his former protection minister and political protege.
A 12 months later, Mr. dos Santos sat in surprised silence at an MPLA convention as his chosen successor denounced latest “corruption, nepotism, flattery and impunity” in a barely veiled assault on the previous ruling household.
To the gathering, Mr. dos Santos supplied no apologies, acknowledged unspecified errors and stated he was leaving along with his “head excessive.”